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SHERMAN ACT: The first antitrust law passed in the United States in 1890 that outlawed monopoly or any attempts to monopolize a market. This was one of three major antitrust laws passed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The other two were the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act. The Sherman Act was successfully used to break up several noted monopolies in the early 1900s, including the Standard Oil Trust in 1911. However, it was flawed by (1) vague wording that allowed wide interpretation (especially based on political influence) and (2) the lack of an effective means of enforcement other than an extended journey through the court system. These two flaws led to the Federal Trade Commission Act and Clayton Act, both passed in 1914. Although other laws have been passed, the Sherman Act remains the cornerstone of antitrust laws in the United States.

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FOURTH RULE OF COMPETITION: The fourth of seven basic rules of the economy. It is the notion that competition among market buyers and sellers generate an efficient allocation of resources. Competition depends on the relative number of buyers and sellers. Fewer numbers give that side of the market relatively more market control and thus limits competition.

     See also | seven rules | market | competition | resource allocation | market control | monopoly | perfect competition | efficiency | competition among the many | competition among the few |


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LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY

A principle stating that as the quantity of a good consumed increases, eventually each additional unit of the good provides less additional utility--that is, marginal utility decreases. Each subsequent unit of a good is valued less than the previous one. The law of diminishing marginal utility helps to explain the negative slope of the demand curve and the law of demand.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers wanting to buy either a large, stuffed kitty cat or a cross-cut paper shredder. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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A thousand years before metal coins were developed, clay tablet "checks" were used as money by the Babylonians.
"Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness."

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