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MARKET FAILURES: Conditions in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

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COMPETITION: In general, the actions of two or more rivals in pursuit of the same objective. In the context of markets, the specific objective is either selling goods to buyers or alternatively buying goods from sellers. Competition tends to come in two varieties -- competition among the few, which is market with a small number of sellers (or buyers), such that each seller (or buyer) has some degree of market control, and competition among the many, which is a market with so many buyers and sellers that none is able to influence the market price or quantity exchanged.

     See also | market | fourth rule of competition | efficiency | market control | market structure | perfect competition | monopoly | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | unfair competition | market share | antitrust laws |


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COMPETITION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: May 25, 2022].


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MARGINAL COST AND LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS

Decreasing then increasing marginal cost, reflected by a U-shaped marginal cost curve, is the result of increasing then decreasing marginal returns. In particular the decreasing marginal returns is caused by the law of diminishing marginal returns. As such, the law of diminishing marginal returns affects not only the short-run production of a firm but also the cost of short-run production. This translates into a positively-sloped supply curve for profit-maximizing competitive firms.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers looking to buy either a large flower pot shaped like a Greek urn or a small palm tree that will fit on your coffee table. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
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