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August 18, 2022 

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AD CURVE: The aggregate demand curve, which is a graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand, or AD, curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the aggregate supply curve (which is actually two curves, the long-run aggregate supply curve and the short-run aggregate supply curve). The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate effect, real-balance effect, and net-export effect.

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SHORT RUN: In terms of the macroeconomic analysis of the aggregate market, a period of time in which some prices, especially wages, are rigid, inflexible, or otherwise in the process of adjusting. Short-run wage and price rigidity prevents some markets, especially resources markets and most notably labor markets, from achieving equilibrium. In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which at least one input in the production process is variable and one is fixed. In the microeconomic analysis, the short run is primarily used to analyze production decisions for a firm.

     See also | fixed input | variable input | inflexible prices | short-run production | macroeconomics | microeconomics |


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EFFECTIVE DEMAND

A key conceptual notion of Keynesian economics stipulating that the aggregate expenditures on real production is based on existing or actual income rather than the income that would be generated with full employment of resources. Effective demand is embodied in the aggregate expenditures line, which has a positive slope, but a slope of less than one. This concept was proposed by Thomas Robert Malthus in the early 1800s as a counter argument to Say's law found in classical economics and then found new life when John Maynard Keynes developed his theory in the 1930s.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles or a handcrafted bird feeder. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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