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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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SUBSTITUTE: In terms of demand (that is, substitute-in-consumption), one of two goods that replace each other in consumption such that an increase in the price of one good leads to an increase in demand and a rightward shift in the demand curve for the other good. If the demand of good 1 increases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-consumption. In terms of supply (that is, substitute-in-production), one of two goods that replace each other in either producing using the same resources in an either/or fashion, such that an increase in the price of one good leads to a decrease in supply and a leftward shift in the supply curve for the other good. If the supply of good 1 decreases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-production.

     See also | demand | supply | substitute-in-consumption | substitute-in-production | consumption | production | demand curve | supply curve | demand determinants | supply determinants | demand shock | supply shock | comparative statics | elasticity |


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PHYSICAL WEALTH, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES DETERMINANT

One of several specific aggregate expenditures determinants assumed constant when the aggregate expenditures line is constructed, and that shifts the aggregate expenditures line when it changes. A decrease in physical wealth causes an increase (upward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. An increase in physical wealth causes a decrease (downward shift) of the aggregate expenditures line. Other notable aggregate expenditures determinants include consumer confidence, federal deficit, inflationary expectations, and exchange rates.

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