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March 1, 2024 

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PRICE CONTROLS: Government intervention in markets in which legal restrictions are placed on the prices charged. The two basic types of price controls are price ceilings and price floors. Price ceilings are maximum prices set below the equilibrium price. Price floors are minimum prices set above the equilibrium price. Price controls imposed on an otherwise efficient and competitive market create imbalances (shortages or surpluses) which cause inefficiency. However, imposing price controls on a market that fails to achieve efficiency (due to market control, externalities, or imperfect information) can actual improve efficiency. Price controls have also be used economy-wide in an attempt to reduce inflation.

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X-INEFFICIENCY: Cost that is higher than it needs to be because a firm is operating inefficiently. This is most often seen for firms that have a great deal of market control, especially monopoly. The lack of competition allows a business to pad it's expenses, hire unneeded employees (like relatives), goof off instead of working, and all sorts of other things that lessen production and increase cost. The business is not penalized for these actions, because market control allows the company to extract whatever price is needed to cover cost.

     See also | economic rent | profit | opportunity cost | efficiency | market control | monopoly | natural monopoly | average-cost pricing | public utility |


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LIMITED LIABILITY

A condition in which owners of a business are not personally held responsible for the debts created by the business. Corporations are the most noted types of business organizations in which owners have limited liability. Limited liability makes it possible for a business to accumulate large sums of money and thus to take advantage of large scale production. The alternative to limited liability is unlimited liability, a characteristic of proprietorships and partnerships.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club hoping to buy either car battery jumper cables or a dozen high trajectory optic orange golf balls. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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A communal society, a prime component of Karl Marx's communist philosophy, was advocated by the Greek philosophy Plato.
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