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CIRCULAR FLOW: The continuous movement of production, income, and resources between producers and consumers. This flow moves through product markets as the gross domestic product of our economy and is then the revenue received by the business sector in payment for this production. This stream of revenue then flows through resource markets as payments by businesses for the resources employed in production. The payments received by resource owners, however, is nothing more than the income of the household sector. The resource owners of the household sector use this income to purchase goods and services through the product markets, coming full circle to where we began.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Concept
  • What It Is
  • Circular Flow
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Doing More
  • Expenditures
  • Consumption Expenditures
  • Investment Expenditures
  • Government Purchases
  • Net Exports
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: The Curve
  • Highlights
  • Slope
  • Real-Balance Effect
  • Interest-Rate Effect
  • Net-Export Effect
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Determinants
  • Instability
  • Shifts: Increase
  • Shifts: Decrease
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policies Plus
  • Business Cycles
  • Policies
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Aggregate Demand

    This lesson introduces aggregate demand, the demand-side of the aggregate market. The aggregate market is the key model used to explain and analyze the workings of the macroeconomy and aggregate demand is a critical half of this model (the other is aggregate supply). Taking a clue from market demand, this lesson examines the nature of aggregate demand, including the relation between the price level and aggregate expenditures, the reason the aggregate demand curve is negatively sloped, and the assorted aggregate demand determinants that cause the aggregate demand curve to shift.

    • The first unit of this lesson introduces the concept of aggregate demand and how it fits into the study of macroeconomics in terms of the aggregate market and circular flow.
    • In the second unit, we example the four aggregate expenditures -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports -- the make up aggregate demand.
    • The third unit then examines the aggregate demand curve that captures the aggregate demand relation between the price level and aggregate expenditures, especially the importance of the real-balance, interest-rate, and net-export effects.
    • A look at the assorted aggregate demand determinants that shift the aggregate demand curves is the topic of the fourth lesson.
    • We end this lesson in the fifth unit with a look how demand-management policies work to stabilize business cycles through aggregate demand.

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    ECONOMICS

    A social science that studies the allocation of limited resources used to produce the goods and services that satisfy unlimited consumer wants and needs. Economics is one of several social sciences (others are sociology, political science, and anthropology) which applies the scientific method to human behavior. The distinguishing feature of economics is a concern with the fundamental problem of scarcity--unlimited wants and needs and limited resources. Economics is commonly divided into two branches--macroeconomics and microeconomics.

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    APLS

    YELLOW CHIPPEROON
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet wanting to buy either a turbo-powered vacuum cleaner or a battery-powered, rechargeable vacuum cleaner. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    A thousand years before metal coins were developed, clay tablet "checks" were used as money by the Babylonians.
    "The majority of men meet with failure because of their lack of persistence in creating new plans to take the place of those that fail. "

    -- Napoleon Hill, author

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    Aggregate Supply
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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