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January 17, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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GIFT TAX: A tax on the transfer of assets from one person to another. The gift tax is different from estate and inheritance taxes in that it applies to people who are still alive. In fact, the gift tax was created because people sought to avoid estate and inheritance taxes by giving their stuff away before dying. But all gifts are not taxed. There are both annual and lifetime exemptions on gifts subject to this tax. These exemptions are changed from time to time, so you might want to investigate further if you happened to hit the big jackpot on a television game show. Some, but not necessarily all of that prize is likely to be taxed.

     See also | tax | asset | estate tax | inheritance tax | government functions |


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UNEMPLOYMENT SOURCES

The four key types or sources of the unemployment of resources, especially labor, are cyclical, seasonal, frictional, and structural. The first, cyclical, in most important in the macroeconomic analysis of business cycles. The last two, frictional and structural, are combined into what is termed natural unemployment. Stabilization policies are generally aimed at reducing cyclical unemployment.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet seeking to buy either a 200-foot blue garden hose or a video camera with stop action features. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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