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March 22, 2019 

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FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT BANK: One of 12 Federal Reserve Banks, each in charge of banking activity within its Federal Reserve District. The 12 Districts are centered in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond, Atlanta, Chicago, St. Louis, Mineapolis, Kansas City, Dallas, and San Francisco. Presidents from 5 of these 12 Banks serve on the powerful Federal Open Market Committee that conducts monetary policy.

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TAX: Any sort of forced or coerced payment to government. The primary reason government collects taxes is to get the revenue needed to finance public goods and pay administrative expenses. However, the more astute leaders of the first estate have recognized over the years that taxes have other effects, including--(1) redirecting resources from one good to another and (2) altering the total amount of production in the economy. As such, taxes have been used to correct market failures, equalize the income distribution, achieve efficiency, stabilize business cycles, and promote economic growth.

     See also | government sector | government | public good | first estate | public sector | market failure | income distribution | business cycle | economic growth | efficiency | income tax | personal income tax | corporate income tax | sales tax | capital gains tax | excise tax | value-added tax | Social Security tax | gift tax | inheritance tax | subsidy |


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TAX, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: March 22, 2019].


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PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM DIFFERENCES

A principle stating that monopolistically competitive firms seek to maintain similarities between products at the same time they promote differences. Similarities enable substitutability, such that one firm can attract the buyers away from other firms. Differences enable uniqueness and market control, such that each firm has market control and is able to charge a higher price than achieved with perfect competition. This principle is also termed Hotelling's paradox.

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