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TOBIN'S Q: A financial measure of a firm's returns, calculated by dividing the market value of the firm (that is, the market value of its outstanding stock and debt) by the replacement costs of the firm's assets. According to James Tobin of Yale University, Nobel Laureate in Economics in 1981, if this ratio is greater than 1 it means that the firm is earning a rate of return higher than that justified by the costs of its assets. That is, Tobin suggested that the ratio of the market value of a firm to the replacement costs of its assets should be close to 1.

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TAX: Any sort of forced or coerced payment to government. The primary reason government collects taxes is to get the revenue needed to finance public goods and pay administrative expenses. However, the more astute leaders of the first estate have recognized over the years that taxes have other effects, including--(1) redirecting resources from one good to another and (2) altering the total amount of production in the economy. As such, taxes have been used to correct market failures, equalize the income distribution, achieve efficiency, stabilize business cycles, and promote economic growth.

     See also | government sector | government | public good | first estate | public sector | market failure | income distribution | business cycle | economic growth | efficiency | income tax | personal income tax | corporate income tax | sales tax | capital gains tax | excise tax | value-added tax | Social Security tax | gift tax | inheritance tax | subsidy |


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SCIENTIFIC METHOD

A structured way of investigating and explaining the operation of the world by testing and verifying hypothesized relations. The scientific method is a process of discovery, a method of explaining the way the world operates. Positive economics is the application of the scientific method to economic analysis.

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APLS

GRAY SKITTERY
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store looking to buy either a revolving spice rack or a how-to book on home repairs. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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The standard "debt" notation I.O.U. does not mean "I owe you," but actually stands for "I owe unto..."
"Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed nothing else can be managed."

-- Peter F. Drucker

JPE
Journal of Political Economy
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