March 23, 2018 

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SLOPE, SAVING LINE: The positive slope of the saving line is also termed the marginal propensity to save (MPS). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced saving and the Keynesian psychological law of consumer behavior that saving increases by less than the increase in income. The slope of the saving line provides the foundation for the slope of the leakages line used in the injections-leakages model. It thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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TAX: Any sort of forced or coerced payment to government. The primary reason government collects taxes is to get the revenue needed to finance public goods and pay administrative expenses. However, the more astute leaders of the first estate have recognized over the years that taxes have other effects, including--(1) redirecting resources from one good to another and (2) altering the total amount of production in the economy. As such, taxes have been used to correct market failures, equalize the income distribution, achieve efficiency, stabilize business cycles, and promote economic growth.

     See also | government sector | government | public good | first estate | public sector | market failure | income distribution | business cycle | economic growth | efficiency | income tax | personal income tax | corporate income tax | sales tax | capital gains tax | excise tax | value-added tax | Social Security tax | gift tax | inheritance tax | subsidy |

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When confronted by asymmetric information, the use of small bits of information, or indicators, that suggest more comprehensive information. Signalling is used by those with more information to reduce the cost of informing those with less information. It is commonly used in markets with adverse selection. Methods of signalling include advertising, brand names, and warranties. A related method is screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale hoping to buy either a set of steel-belted radial snow tires or a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Presidential election. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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