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May 24, 2022 

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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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SOCIAL SECURITY TAX: A tax on wage earnings that's used to fund the Social Security system. In principle, the Social Security tax is divided equally between employer and employee--your share is listed under the FICA heading of your paycheck. In practice, however, employees really end up paying both employee and employer contributes. The reason is that employers need to consider the entire cost of hiring an employee, including wages, fringe benefits, and assorted taxes. The more they pay in these nonwage items, like Social Security taxes, the less they pay in wages. In that the Social security tax is only on earnings, and excludes profit, interest, and rent, it tends to be a regressive tax.

     See also | tax | wage | Social Security | opportunity cost | profit | interest | rent | regressive tax | payroll tax |


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INFLATION RATE

The percentage change in the price level from one period to the next. The inflation rate is most commonly presented as an annual average, the percentage change in the average price level from one year to the next. The two most common price indexes used to measure the price level and the inflation rate are the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the GDP price deflator. The inflation rate is one of several key indicators of business-cycle instability and the overall health of the macroeconomy, with primary focus on tracking the goal of price stability.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store looking to buy either a revolving spice rack or a how-to book on home repairs. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined for currency by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia until 1828.
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