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August 24, 2019 

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PERFECT PRICE DISCRIMINATION: A form of price discrimination in which a seller charges the highest price that buyers are willing and able to pay for each quantity of output sold. This is also termed first-degree price discrimination because the seller is able to extract ALL consumer surplus from the buyers. This is one of three price discrimination degrees. The others are second-degree price discrimination and third-degree price discrimination.

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SOCIAL SECURITY: A system for providing financial assistance to the poor, elderly, and disabled. The social security system in the United States was established by the Social Security Act (1935) in response to the devastating problems of the Great Depression. Our current Social Security system has several parts. The first part, Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) is the one the usually comes to mind when the phrase "Social Security" comes up. It provides benefits to anyone who has reached a certain age and who has paid taxes into the program while employed. It also provides benefits to qualified recipients survivors or dependents. The second part of the system is Disability Insurance (DI), which provides benefits to workers and their dependents in the case of physical disabilities that keeps them from working. The third part is Hospital Insurance (HI), more commonly termed medicare. Medicare provides two types of benefits, hospital coverage for anyone in the OASI part of the system and optional supplemental medical benefits that require a monthly insurance premium. The last part of the social security system is Public Assistance (PA), which is the official term for welfare and is covered under it's own heading.

     See also | transfer payment | Great Depression | income | national income | personal income | tax | insurance | welfare | Baby Boomer | poverty | Social Security tax | income earned but not received | income received but not earned |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND SHIFTS

Changes in the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. The mechanism is comparable to that for market demand determinants and market demand. There are two alternatives--an increase in aggregate demand and a decrease in aggregate demand. An increase in spending by any of the four sectors--household, business, government, and foreign--shifts the aggregate demand curve to right. A decrease in spending by these four sectors shifts the aggregate demand curve to left.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market seeking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your aunt or a wall poster commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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The standard "debt" notation I.O.U. does not mean "I owe you," but actually stands for "I owe unto..."
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