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August 15, 2020 

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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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SOCIAL SECURITY: A system for providing financial assistance to the poor, elderly, and disabled. The social security system in the United States was established by the Social Security Act (1935) in response to the devastating problems of the Great Depression. Our current Social Security system has several parts. The first part, Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) is the one the usually comes to mind when the phrase "Social Security" comes up. It provides benefits to anyone who has reached a certain age and who has paid taxes into the program while employed. It also provides benefits to qualified recipients survivors or dependents. The second part of the system is Disability Insurance (DI), which provides benefits to workers and their dependents in the case of physical disabilities that keeps them from working. The third part is Hospital Insurance (HI), more commonly termed medicare. Medicare provides two types of benefits, hospital coverage for anyone in the OASI part of the system and optional supplemental medical benefits that require a monthly insurance premium. The last part of the social security system is Public Assistance (PA), which is the official term for welfare and is covered under it's own heading.

     See also | transfer payment | Great Depression | income | national income | personal income | tax | insurance | welfare | Baby Boomer | poverty | Social Security tax | income earned but not received | income received but not earned |


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RECESSION

A phase of the business cycle characterized by a general period of declining economic activity. A recession is one of two basic business cycle phases. The other is expansion. The transition from recession to expansion is termed a trough and the transition from expansion to recession is termed a peak. The technical term for recession, which is generally used by economists and policy makers, is contraction.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area trying to buy either galvanized steel storage shelves or a large green chalkboard shaped like the state of Maine. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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In the early 1900s around 300 automobile companies operated in the United States.
"If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been owing more to patient attention than to any other talent. "

-- Isaac Newton, mathematician, physicist

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