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June 15, 2024 

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HOMOGENEOUS OF DEGREE N: A property of an equation the exists if independent variables are increased by a constant value, then the dependent variable is increased by the value raised to the power of n. The value of n can be greater than, less than, or equal to one. This property often surfaces in the analysis of production functions. If n = 1, then a doubling independent variables results in a doubling of the dependent variable and the production function has constant returns to scale. If n > 1, then a doubling independent variables results in more than a doubling of the dependent variable and the production function has increasing returns to scale. If n < 1, then a doubling independent variables results in less than a doubling of the dependent variable and the production function has decreasing returns to scale.

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SOCIAL SECURITY: A system for providing financial assistance to the poor, elderly, and disabled. The social security system in the United States was established by the Social Security Act (1935) in response to the devastating problems of the Great Depression. Our current Social Security system has several parts. The first part, Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) is the one the usually comes to mind when the phrase "Social Security" comes up. It provides benefits to anyone who has reached a certain age and who has paid taxes into the program while employed. It also provides benefits to qualified recipients survivors or dependents. The second part of the system is Disability Insurance (DI), which provides benefits to workers and their dependents in the case of physical disabilities that keeps them from working. The third part is Hospital Insurance (HI), more commonly termed medicare. Medicare provides two types of benefits, hospital coverage for anyone in the OASI part of the system and optional supplemental medical benefits that require a monthly insurance premium. The last part of the social security system is Public Assistance (PA), which is the official term for welfare and is covered under it's own heading.

     See also | transfer payment | Great Depression | income | national income | personal income | tax | insurance | welfare | Baby Boomer | poverty | Social Security tax | income earned but not received | income received but not earned |


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ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION

Information is not equally available to everyone. Asymmetric information results because efficient information search inevitably stops short of compete information. Some people obtain more benefits from information than others, are willing to incur higher search costs, and thus end up knowing more. Or they incur lower information search costs and have easier access to the information. In a market, sellers tend to have more information about the good than buyers. Asymmetric information gives rise to adverse selection, moral hazard, and the principal-agent problem. These problems can be lessened through signalling and screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for rummage sales looking to buy either a rotisserie oven that can also toast bread or a flower arrangement in a coffee cup for your father. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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The first paper currency used in North America was pasteboard playing cards "temporarily" authorized as money by the colonial governor of French Canada, awaiting "real money" from France.
"Be kind and merciful. Let no one ever come to you without coming away better and happier."

-- Mother Teresa of Calcutta, humanitarian

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