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REGULATION: Government rules or laws that control the activities of businesses and consumers. The motivation for regulation is that businesses are inclined to do things that are harmful to the public--actions which need to be prevented or otherwise controlled. Regulation is essentially an extension of government's authority to protect one member of society from another. It tends to take one of two forms--(1) industry regulation that's intended to prevent firms from gaining and abusing excessive market control and (2) social regulation that seeks to protect consumers for problems caused by pollution, unsafe products, and the lack of information (market failure).

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INSURANCE: Transferring risk to others. The need for insurance occurs because people tend to be risk averse in many circumstances. As such, most of us are willing to pay for certainty. Those who satisfy this need for insurance, insurance companies for example, do so because they can pool risk. If insurance companies know the chance of some loss (an accident, illness, or whatever) and its cost, then they can divide this cost among a large group of risk averse types. The insurance company agrees to pay the cost of the loss and each of the risk averse types pay a risk premium, but get the peace of mind that goes with certainty.

     See also | risk | risk averse | risk premium | welfare | Social Security | unemployment compensation | taxes | market control | financial markets | risk loving | risk neutral |


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INSURANCE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: April 25, 2018].


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO INVEST

The change in business investment expenditures induced by a change in income or production (national income or gross domestic product). The marginal propensity to invest (abbreviated MPI) is another term for the slope of the investment line and is calculated as the change in investment divided by the change in income or production. The MPI plays a role in Keynesian economics. It augments the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and is part to the multiplier process. A related marginal measure is the marginal propensity to consume.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale looking to buy either a T-shirt commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a genuine fake plastic Tiffany lamp. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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The wealthy industrialist, Andrew Carnegie, was once removed from a London tram because he lacked the money needed for the fare.
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