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April 14, 2024 

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AGGREGATE MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: The state of equilibrium that exists in the aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. The four macroeconomic sector (household, business, government, and foreign) buyers purchase all of the real production that they seek at the existing price level and business-sector producers sell all of the real production that they have at the existing price level. The aggregate market equilibrium actually comes in two forms: (1) long-run equilibrium, in which all three aggregated markets (product, financial, and resource) are in equilibrium and (2) short-run equilibrium, in which the product and financial markets are in equilibrium, but the resource markets are not.

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INSURANCE: Transferring risk to others. The need for insurance occurs because people tend to be risk averse in many circumstances. As such, most of us are willing to pay for certainty. Those who satisfy this need for insurance, insurance companies for example, do so because they can pool risk. If insurance companies know the chance of some loss (an accident, illness, or whatever) and its cost, then they can divide this cost among a large group of risk averse types. The insurance company agrees to pay the cost of the loss and each of the risk averse types pay a risk premium, but get the peace of mind that goes with certainty.

     See also | risk | risk averse | risk premium | welfare | Social Security | unemployment compensation | taxes | market control | financial markets | risk loving | risk neutral |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND

The total real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers are willing and able to undertake at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand, usually abbreviated AD, is an inverse relation between price level and aggregate expenditures. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand consists of four aggregate expenditures--consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--made by the four macroeconomic sectors--household, business, government, and foreign.

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