March 23, 2018 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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RISK: The possibility of gain or loss. Risk the calculated probability of different events happening, is usually contrasted with uncertainty the possibility that any number of things could happen. For example, uncertainty is the possibility that you could win or lose $100 on the flip of a coin. You don't know which will happen, it could go either way. Risk, in contrast, is the 50 percent chance of winning $100 and the 50 percent chance of losing $100 on the flip of the coin. You know (or think you know) that your probability of winning or losing is 50 percent because the coin has a 50 percent chance of coming up either heads or tails.

     See also | uncertainty | financial market | insurance | profit | risk averse | risk loving | risk neutral | risk pooling | risk premium | entrepreneurship |

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Ceteris paribus factors, other than aggregate income or production, that are held constant when the investment line is constructed and which cause the investment line to shift when they change. Some of the more important investment expenditures determinants are interest rates, expectations, wealth, capital prices, and technology.

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