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UNEMPLOYMENT SOURCES: The unemployment of resources in general, and labor in particular, can be attributable to four basic reasons, or sources: cyclical, seasonal, frictional, and structural. Cyclical unemployment is involuntary unemployment created by business cycle recessions. Seasonal unemployment is relatively regular, read this as predictable, unemployment tied to a particular job. Frictional unemployment is temporary unemployment created when workers switch jobs. Structural unemployment is relatively permanent unemployment created because workers' skills are not the same as the skills needed on the job.

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TAXES: Any sort of forced or coerced payments to government. The primary reason government collects taxes is to get the revenue needed to finance public goods and pay administrative expenses. However, the more astute leaders of the first estate have recognized over the years that taxes have other effects, including--(1) redirecting resources from one good to another and (2) altering the total amount of production in the economy. As such, taxes have been used to correct market failures, equalize the income distribution, achieve efficiency, stabilize business cycles, and promote economic growth.

     See also | government sector | government | public good | first estate | public sector | market failure | income distribution | business cycle | economic growth | efficiency | income tax | personal income tax | corporate income tax | sales tax | capital gains tax | excise tax | value-added tax | Social Security tax | gift tax | inheritance tax | subsidy |


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TAXES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: January 21, 2019].


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INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A macroeconomic model that balances non-consumption expenditures on production (injections) and non-consumption uses of income (leakages) that is used to identify the equilibrium level of, and analyze disruptions to, aggregate production and income. The injections-leakages model is based on the principles of Keynesian economics and provides an alternative to the standard aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis. The three injections included in the model are investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. The three leakages included in the model are saving, taxes, and imports. Three variations are the two-sector injections-leakages model (or saving-investment model), three-sector injections-leakages model, and four-sector injections-leakages model.

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