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October 19, 2018 

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DEVALUATION: The act of reducing the price (exchange rate) of one nation's currency in terms of other currencies. This is usually done by a government to lower the price of the country's exports and raise the price of foreign imports, which ultimately results in greater domestic production. The short- and long-run consequences of devaluation are described in the entry on the J curve. A government devalues its currency by actively selling it and buying foreign currencies through the foreign exchange market.

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TAXES: Any sort of forced or coerced payments to government. The primary reason government collects taxes is to get the revenue needed to finance public goods and pay administrative expenses. However, the more astute leaders of the first estate have recognized over the years that taxes have other effects, including--(1) redirecting resources from one good to another and (2) altering the total amount of production in the economy. As such, taxes have been used to correct market failures, equalize the income distribution, achieve efficiency, stabilize business cycles, and promote economic growth.

     See also | government sector | government | public good | first estate | public sector | market failure | income distribution | business cycle | economic growth | efficiency | income tax | personal income tax | corporate income tax | sales tax | capital gains tax | excise tax | value-added tax | Social Security tax | gift tax | inheritance tax | subsidy |


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FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATE

An exchange rate determined through the unrestricted interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Also termed floating exchange rate, this is one of three basic exchange rate policies used by domestic governments to control their exchange rates with the goal of affecting international trade, balance of trade, and balance of payments. This policy is based on the view that the free interplay of market forces is most likely to generate a desireable pattern of international trade. The other two policies are fixed exchange rate and managed flexible exchange rate.

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