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November 26, 2021 

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SELF-CORRECTION, RECESSIONARY GAP: The automatic process through which the aggregate market achieves long-run equilibrium by eliminating a recessionary gap created by short-run equilibrium. With a recessionary gap short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production, meaning resource markets have surpluses, and in particular labor is unemployed. Self-correction is the process in which these temporary imbalances are eliminated through flexible prices as the aggregate market achieves long-run equilibrium. The key to this process is shifts of the short-run aggregate supply curve caused by changes in wages and other resource prices. The long-run result is lower wages and an increase in short-run aggregate supply.

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PERSONAL INCOME TAX: A tax on individual income. This is the primary source of revenue for the federal government, a big source for many state and local governments, and the reason most people dread April 15th. In principle, personal income taxes are progressive, based on a graduated tax scale. However, it's much more proportional today than it was several decades ago.

     See also | tax | income | ability-to-pay principle | progressive tax | proportional tax | regressive tax | corporate profits tax |


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MARKET FOR LEMONS

A market adversely selects only lower quality products for exchange. The market for lemons is an illustration of adverse selection that results from asymmetric information. In this market, because buyers have limited information they offer an average price based on the average quality of the goods. Sellers, however, with better information select to sell lower quality products but not higher quality ones. Two methods of address this problem are signalling and screening. Two related information problems are moral hazard and the principal-agent problem.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction wanting to buy either a small palm tree that will fit on your coffee table or several magazines on fashion design. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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The New York Stock Exchange was established by a group of investors in New York City in 1817 under a buttonwood tree at the end of a little road named Wall Street.
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