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BUYERS' EXPECTATIONS: One of the five demand determinants assumed constant when a demand curve is constructed, and that shift the demand curve when they change. The other four are income, preferences, other prices, and number of buyers. If buyers expect the future price will be greater, then they're likely to buy more today, to avoid the higher future price. Alternatively, if buyers expect a lower future price, then they're likely to buy less today, awaiting the lower price. A higher future price induces an increase in demand and a lower future price induces a decrease in demand.

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

     See also | benefit principle | tax | income | public goods | progressive tax | regressive tax | proportional tax | circular flow |


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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: January 20, 2019].


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PERFECT COMPETITION, SHUTDOWN

A perfectly competitive firm is presumed to shutdown production and produce no output in the short run, if price is less than average variable cost. This is one of three short-run production alternatives facing a firm. The other two are profit maximization (if price exceeds average total cost) and loss minimization (if price is greater than average variable cost but less than average total cost).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet looking to buy either a remote controlled World War I bi-plane or a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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