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EXCESS DEMAND: A disequilibrium condition in a competitive market in which the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity supplied, hence there's "extra" demand. Pointy-headed economists generally use the more technical term shortage rather than excess demand. The reason, of course, is that shortage has two syllables and excess demand has four. The time saved in pronouncing two syllables rather than four is a definite efficiency plus for the entire economy.

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

     See also | benefit principle | tax | income | public goods | progressive tax | regressive tax | proportional tax | circular flow |


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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: January 26, 2022].


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SECOND RULE OF SUBJECTIVITY

The second of seven basic rules of the economy, stating that market prices are determined by subjective values and the preferences of buyers and resource owners. Contrary to popular opinion, prices and costs are not immutably facts of nature, but are ultimately based on what people are willing to pay or accept.

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