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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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PROPORTIONAL TAX: A tax in which people pay the same percentage of income in taxes regardless of their incomes. Here's an example of a proportional tax -- You earn $10,000 a year and your boss gets $20,000. You pay $1,000 in taxes (10 percent) and your boss pays $2,000 in taxes (10 percent). While a proportional tax would seem to make a lot of sense, very few taxes are designed to be proportional and even fewer come out that way in practice. The reason is often attributable to the ongoing battle between the second and third estates. Each side wants the other to pay a larger share of taxes.

     See also | tax | income | income tax | income | regressive tax | progressive tax |


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PROPORTIONAL TAX, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: July 22, 2018].


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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE

A taxation principle stating that taxes should be based on the ability to pay taxes. The ability-to-pay principle works from the proposition that those who have the greatest income should pay the most taxes. The ability-to-pay principle is the only reasonable way to finance the provision of public goods such as national defense, public health, and environmental quality. This is one of two taxation principles. The other is the benefit principle, which states taxes should be based on the benefits received.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius hoping to buy either a tall storage cabinet with five shelves and a secure lock or a birthday greeting card for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a champion of the scientific method, died when he caught a severe cold while attempting to preserve a chicken by filling it with snow.
"You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

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