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March 21, 2019 

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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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PROPORTIONAL TAX: A tax in which people pay the same percentage of income in taxes regardless of their incomes. Here's an example of a proportional tax -- You earn $10,000 a year and your boss gets $20,000. You pay $1,000 in taxes (10 percent) and your boss pays $2,000 in taxes (10 percent). While a proportional tax would seem to make a lot of sense, very few taxes are designed to be proportional and even fewer come out that way in practice. The reason is often attributable to the ongoing battle between the second and third estates. Each side wants the other to pay a larger share of taxes.

     See also | tax | income | income tax | income | regressive tax | progressive tax |


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PROPORTIONAL TAX, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: March 21, 2019].


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AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT PURCHASES

Government purchases by the government sector that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in government purchases. Autonomous government purchases are best thought of as government purchases that the government sector undertake independent of income. They are measured by the intercept term of the government purchases line. The alternative to autonomous government purchases is induced government purchases, which do depend on income.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale looking to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
"When the solution is simple, God is answering."

-- Albert Einstein

BPEA
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity
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