March 23, 2018 

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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

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INCOME TAX: A tax on income, including wages, rent, interest, profit, and (usually) transfer payments. The income tax system in the United States includes both a personal income tax and corporate income tax. In general, the U. S. income tax is progressive, but through a number of deductions and other loopholes, it's less so in practice that on paper.

     See also | tax | income | factor payments | personal income tax | corporate income tax | progressive tax | Internal Revenue Service |

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The notion that an increase in saving, which is generally good advice for an individual during bad economic times, can actually worsen the macroeconomy causing a reduction in aggregate income, production, and paradoxically a decrease in saving. The paradox of thrift is an example of the fallacy of composition stating that what is true for the part is not necessarily true for the whole.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club wanting to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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More money is spent on gardening than on any other hobby.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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