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November 26, 2021 

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PLANNED INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector intends to undertake based on expected economic conditions, interest rates, sales, and profitability. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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SUBSIDY: A payment from government to individuals or businesses without any expectations of production. The best way of thinking about a subsidy is as a negative tax. Government extends subsidies for many different reasons. They go to students, unemployed workers, the poor, farmers, wealthy friends of political leaders, businesses trying to fend off foreign competitors, and the list could go on. Subsidies are frequently used to redirect resources from one good to another. Sometimes this is justified on efficiency grounds and other times it's just the result of political power.

     See also | tax | production | transfer payment | efficiency | special interest group |


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FALLACY OF PERSONAL ATTACK

The logical fallacy of arguing that something is bad because someone "associated" with the thing is ugly, has a funny nose, drives a foreign car, regularly watches daytime soap operas, or wears outdated clothing. This fallacy of personal attack runs rampant in the political arena. Some politicians promote the notion that only good people propose good policies, while bad people have bad policies. The fact of the matter is that good people propose bad policies and bad people propose good policies.

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PINK FADFLY
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale seeking to buy either a small palm tree that will fit on your coffee table or several magazines on fashion design. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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This isn't me! What am I?

The 1909 Lincoln penny was the first U.S. coin with the likeness of a U.S. President.
"There is more to life than increasing its speed. "

-- Mohandas Gandhi, activist

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