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July 23, 2019 

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EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves long-run equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negatively-sloped demand curve. Long-run equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negatively-sloped demand curve and the long-run average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.

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GOVERNMENT: A political body exercising control and authority over a group of individuals. Governments allocate resources based on laws and the command of the government.

     See also | government functions | government sector | good types | public choice | fifth rule of imperfection |


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AVERAGE FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION

Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a perfectly competitive firm in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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