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August 14, 2020 

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REALISM OF PERFECT COMPETITION: Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to a one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that we can declare a perfectly competitively industry. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

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MARKET FAILURE: A condition in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |


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MARKET FAILURE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2020. [Accessed: August 14, 2020].


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OLIGOPOLY, CONCENTRATION

Oligopoly is a market structure that contains a small number of relatively large firms, meaning oligopoly markets tend to be concentrated. A small number of large firms account for a majority of total output. Concentration unto itself is not necessarily bad, but it often leads to inefficient behavior, such as collusion and nonprice competition. Concentration is measured in three ways--market share, concentration ratio, Herfindahl index.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store seeking to buy either a case for your designer sunglasses or arch supports for your shoes. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a champion of the scientific method, died when he caught a severe cold while attempting to preserve a chicken by filling it with snow.
"We succeed in enterprises (that) demand the positive qualities we possess, but we excel in those (that) can also make use of our defects. "

-- Alexis de Tocqueville, statesman, author

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