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SHUTDOWN RULE: A rule stating that firm minimizes economic loss by producing no output in the short run if price is less than average variable cost. In the short run, a firm incurs total fixed cost whether or not it produces any output. As such, if the market price is falls below average total cost, it must decide if the economic loss from producing the quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost is more or less than the economic loss incurred with shutting down production in the short run (which is equal to total fixed cost).

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MARKET FAILURE: A condition in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |


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AVERAGE REVENUE

The revenue received for selling a good per unit of output sold, found by dividing total revenue by the quantity of output. Average revenue often goes by a simpler and more widely used term... price. Using the longer term average revenue rather than price provides a connection to other related terms, especially total revenue and marginal revenue. When compared with average cost, average revenue indicates the amount of profit generated per unit of output produced. Average revenue is often depicted by an average revenue curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store trying to buy either a travel case for you toothbrush or a looseleaf notebook binder. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
"Success is going from failure to failure without a loss of enthusiasm. "

-- Winston Churchill, British statesman

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