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PRICE DISCRIMINATION: Charging different prices to different buyers for the same good. This is an age old practice for suppliers who have achieved some degree of market control, especially those with a monopoly. The reason for price discrimination, of course, is higher profit. To be a successful price discriminator you must be able to do three things--(1) have market control and be a price maker, (2) identify two or more groups that are willing to pay different prices, and (3) keep the buyers in one group from reselling the good to another group. In this way, you will be able to charge each group what they, and they alone, are willing to pay.

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MARKET FAILURE: A condition in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |


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HERFINDAHL INDEX

A measure of concentration of the production in an industry calculated as the sum of the squares of market shares for each firm. This is one method of summarizing the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the concentration of market control held by the largest firms in the industry. Two other measures of industry concentration are the four-firm concentration ratio and the eight-firm concentration ratio.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store looking to buy either high-gloss photo paper that works with your printer or a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
"Try not to become a man of success but rather to become a man of value. "

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