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September 20, 2018 

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UTILITARIANISM: A philosophical view that the value or worth of an action depends on the amount of pleasure it generates or the amount of pain it prevents, or in economic terms, the amount of utility generated. Utilitarianism, although dating back to the early Greek philosophers, is largely attributable to the work of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. This philosophy played a major role in the development of modern consumer demand theory and utility analysis.

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POLLUTION: Any waste that imposes an opportunity cost when it's returned to the natural environment. Pollution is one of the more prevalent examples of an externality cost and market failure. Examples include, but by no means are limited to, car exhaust, municipal sewage, industrial waste, and agricultural chemical runoff from farms. Pollution waste can be classified as degradable, persistent, or nondegradable, depending on how easily it can be broken down into nonharmful form by the natural environment. Pollution problems can never be eliminated, but they can be handled with efficiency if the amount of pollution is such that the cost of damages is the same as the cost of cleanup.

     See also | market failure | externality | environment | natural resources | materials balance | efficiency | Pigouvian tax | recycling | regulation | Coase theorem | command and control | pollution rights market |


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INFLATION CAUSES

Inflation, the persistent increase in the average price level, can be caused by an increase in aggregate demand or a decrease in aggregate supply. This suggests two basics sources, causes, or types of inflation--demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation. While short-term bouts of inflation (up to several months) can result from anything (determinant) that might cause either increases in aggregate demand or decreases in aggregate supply, long-term inflation (a year or more) is possible ONLY through persistent increases in the money supply. As such, while demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation are convenient ways to catalog the transmission mechanisms of inflation, the ultimate CAUSE of inflation is money.

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