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April 13, 2021 

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PERFECT COMPETITION, REVENUE DIVISION: The marginal approach to analyzing a perfectly competitive firm's short-run profit maximizing production decision can be used to identify the division of total revenue among variable cost, fixed cost, and economic profit. The U-shaped cost curves used in this analysis provide all of the information needed on the cost side of the firm's decision. The demand curve facing the firm (which is also the firm's average revenue and marginal revenue curves) provides all of the information needed on the revenue side.

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EXTERNALITY: A cost or benefit that is not included in the market price of a good because it's not included in the supply price or the demand price. Pollution is an example of an externality cost if producers aren't the ones who suffer from pollution damages. Education is an example of an externality benefit when members of society other than students benefit from a more educated population. Externality is one type of market failure that causes inefficiency.

     See also | opportunity cost | market | supply price | demand price | market failure | efficiency | pollution | materials balance | good types | Pigouvian tax | Coase theorem |


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EXTERNALITY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: April 13, 2021].


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AD VALOREM TAX

A tax specified as a percentage of the price or value of a good, service, asset, or other activity. Ad valorem taxes tend to be broad based, imposed on activities such as income and retail sales. In fact, the two most important ad valorem taxes are income taxes and sales taxes. People pay a percentage of their incomes in income taxes or a percentage or the value of their purchases in sales taxes, regardless of the amount of time spent working or the quantities of goods purchases. An alternative is a per unit tax, with is a tax specified as a percentage of the physical quantity of a good.

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BLUE PLACIDOLA
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel hoping to buy either a solid oak entertainment center or a remote controlled ceiling fan. Be on the lookout for letters from the Internal Revenue Service.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Natural gas has no odor. The smell is added artificially so that leaks can be detected.
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