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NET DOMESTIC PRODUCT AND NATIONAL INCOME: Net domestic product (NDP) is the total market value of all final goods and services produced within the political boundaries of an economy during a given period of time, usually a year, after adjusting for the depreciation of capital. National income (NI) is the total income earned by the citizens of the national economy resulting from their ownership of resources used in the production of final goods and services during a given period of time, usually one year. The five main differences between net domestic product and national income are (1) indirect business taxes, (2) business transfer payments, (3) net foreign factor income, (4) government subsidies, and (5) statistical discrepancy.

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PIGOUVIAN TAX: A tax on an external cost, such as pollution, designed to use market forces to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. A. C. Pigou, one of the first economists to study the market failure of externalities, is credited with developing this tax system for internalizing costs external to the market. An external cost caused by pollution, for example, can be internalized if polluters pay a tax equal to the value of the external cost.

     See also | tax | externality | pollution | market failure | efficiency | market | demand curve | supply curve | materials balance | recycling | regulation | Coase theorem | command and control | pollution rights market |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, REALISM

Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that they can be declared PERFECTLY competitively. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing or a how-to book on surfing the Internet. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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Woodrow Wilson's portrait adorned the $100,000 bill that was removed from circulation in 1929. Woodrow Wilson was removed from circulation in 1924.
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