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April 19, 2014 

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RETURNS TO SCALE: Changes in production the occurs when all resources are proportionately increased in the long run. Returns to scale answers the question: If labor, capital, and ALL other inputs increase by 10%, does output increase by more than 10%, less than 10%, or exactly 10%? These answers indicate that returns to scale can take one of three forms: increasing returns to scale, decreasing returns to scale, and constant returns to scale.

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EXTERNALITIES: Costs or benefits that are not included in the market price of a good because they are not included in the supply price or the demand price. Pollution is an example of an externality cost if producers aren't the ones who suffer from pollution damages. Education is an example of an externality benefit when members of society other than students benefit from a more educated population. Externality is one type of market failure that causes inefficiency.

     See also | opportunity cost | market | supply price | demand price | market failure | efficiency | pollution | materials balance | good types | Pigouvian tax | Coase theorem |


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EXTERNALITIES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2014. [Accessed: April 19, 2014].


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AVERAGE FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION

Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a perfectly competitive firm in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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State of the ECONOMY

Producer Price Index for Finished Goods
February 2014
205.7
Up 2.0% from February 2013 Soure: BLS.gov

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for rummage sales seeking to buy either an instructional DVD on learning to the play the oboe or a small, foam rubber football. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
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-- Lily Tomlin, Actress

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