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July 31, 2015 

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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

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EXTERNALITIES: Costs or benefits that are not included in the market price of a good because they are not included in the supply price or the demand price. Pollution is an example of an externality cost if producers aren't the ones who suffer from pollution damages. Education is an example of an externality benefit when members of society other than students benefit from a more educated population. Externality is one type of market failure that causes inefficiency.

     See also | opportunity cost | market | supply price | demand price | market failure | efficiency | pollution | materials balance | good types | Pigouvian tax | Coase theorem |


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EXTERNALITIES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2015. [Accessed: July 31, 2015].


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NATIONAL BANKS

Traditional banks that are chartered by the Comptroller of the Currency and are automatically members of the Federal Reserve System. The contrast to national banks are state banks, which are chartered by one of the fifty states. National banks tend to larger than state banks and whether justified or not tend to be slightly more prestigious. In the modern economy this distinction is less important than it was a few decades bank when state banks were subject to lesser state regulations than national banks.

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