December 1, 2015 

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NIRA: The common abbreviation for the National Industrial Recovery Act, which was one of the first acts passed under New Deal program the Roosevelt administration in 1933. The NIRA specifically allowed workers to organized into unions and to engage in collective bargaining without interference from firms. This act was declared unconstitutional in 1935, but while in force gave a big boost to labor unions and membership. The National Labor Relations Act was created in 1935 to replace the NIRA.

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EXTERNALITIES: Costs or benefits that are not included in the market price of a good because they are not included in the supply price or the demand price. Pollution is an example of an externality cost if producers aren't the ones who suffer from pollution damages. Education is an example of an externality benefit when members of society other than students benefit from a more educated population. Externality is one type of market failure that causes inefficiency.

     See also | opportunity cost | market | supply price | demand price | market failure | efficiency | pollution | materials balance | good types | Pigouvian tax | Coase theorem |

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An elasticity alternative in which infinitesimally small changes in one variable (usually price) cause infinitely large changes in another variable (usually quantity). Quantity is infinitely responsive to price. Any change in price, no matter how small, triggers an infinite change in quantity. This characterization of elasticity is most important for the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. Perfectly elastic is one of five elasticity alternatives. The other four are perfectly inelastic, relatively elastic, relatively inelastic, and unit elastic.

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State of the ECONOMY

Consumer Price Index W
July 2015
Up slightly from June 2015 Source: B L S

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store looking to buy either a birthday gift for your grandmother or a T-shirt commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for the last item on a shelf.
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A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court!
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-- Albert Schweitzer, missionary physician

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