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April 21, 2018 

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RATE OF RETURN: The ratio of the additional annual income or profit generated by an investment to the cost of the investment. Here's a simple example, although the calculations are usually a great deal more involved for actual investments. If the cost of constructing a new factory is $10 million and it gives you an extra $1 million in profit each year, then its rate of return is 10 percent.

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CAPITAL GAINS TAX: A tax on the difference between the sales price of a "capital" asset and it's original purchase price. The capital assets subject to this tax include such things real estate, stocks, and bonds. This tax is frequently a source of controversy between the second and third estates. In that the second estate owns and sells a lot of this sort of capital, they don't like to pay taxes on capital gains. However, because the third estate doesn't have much capital it seems like a pretty good thing to tax. Those who oppose the capital gains tax argue that it takes away funds that would be used for further capital investment, which thus inhibits economic growth. Those who favor it argue that helps equalize unfairly unequal income and wealth distributions.

     See also | capital | asset | corporate stock | bond | second estate | third estate | investment | economic growth | income distribution | wealth distribution | corporate income tax | progressive tax |


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INTEREST-RATE EFFECT

A change in aggregate expenditures on real production, especially those made by the household and business sectors, that results because a change in the price level alters the interest rate which then affects the cost of borrowing. This is one of three effects underlying the negative slope of the aggregate demand curve associated with a movement along the aggregate demand curve and a change in aggregate expenditures. The other two are real-balance effect and net-export effect.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club trying to buy either a pair of red and purple designer socks or a T-shirt commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki. Be on the lookout for gnomes hiding in cypress trees.
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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"Inside the ring or out, ain't nothing wrong with going down. It's staying down that's wrong. "

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