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October 22, 2021 

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SCARCE: The general condition indicating that a good or resource is limited relative to the what people want. In terms of ALL resources and goods throughout society, the related term scarcity is used. Being scarce is what makes it possible to exchange goods and resources through markets, and most importantly, charge a price. If a good is not scarce, which means that the economy has more than enough to satisfy all available uses, then there is no way to sell it. Who would buy such an item, pay a price for it, give up something of value in exchange for it, when it is so abundant? Likewise, if a item is so abundant, using it to satisfy one use does not impose an opportunity cost on other uses.

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CAPITAL GAINS TAX: A tax on the difference between the sales price of a "capital" asset and it's original purchase price. The capital assets subject to this tax include such things real estate, stocks, and bonds. This tax is frequently a source of controversy between the second and third estates. In that the second estate owns and sells a lot of this sort of capital, they don't like to pay taxes on capital gains. However, because the third estate doesn't have much capital it seems like a pretty good thing to tax. Those who oppose the capital gains tax argue that it takes away funds that would be used for further capital investment, which thus inhibits economic growth. Those who favor it argue that helps equalize unfairly unequal income and wealth distributions.

     See also | capital | asset | corporate stock | bond | second estate | third estate | investment | economic growth | income distribution | wealth distribution | corporate income tax | progressive tax |


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VARIABLE COST

In general, cost that changes with changes in the quantity of output produced. More specifically, variable cost is combined with the adjectives "total" and "average" to indicate the overall level of variable cost or the per unit variable cost. Variable cost depends on the amount produced. If there is no production, then there is no variable cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area hoping to buy either a handcrafted bird house or a weathervane with a chicken on top. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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Before 1933, the U.S. dime was legal as payment only in transactions of $10 or less.
"A stumble may prevent a fall. "

-- Margaret Thatcher, British prime minister

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