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July 23, 2019 

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SELLERS' EXPECTATIONS: One of the five supply determinants assumed constant when a supply curve is constructed, and that shift the supply curve when they change. The other four are resource prices, technology, other prices, and number of sellers. If sellers expect the future price will be greater, then they're likely to sell less today, to take advantage of the higher future price. Alternatively, if sellers expect a lower future price, then they're likely to sell more today, hoping to avoid the lower price. A higher future price induces an decrease in supply and a lower future price induces a increase in supply.

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CAPITAL GAINS TAX: A tax on the difference between the sales price of a "capital" asset and it's original purchase price. The capital assets subject to this tax include such things real estate, stocks, and bonds. This tax is frequently a source of controversy between the second and third estates. In that the second estate owns and sells a lot of this sort of capital, they don't like to pay taxes on capital gains. However, because the third estate doesn't have much capital it seems like a pretty good thing to tax. Those who oppose the capital gains tax argue that it takes away funds that would be used for further capital investment, which thus inhibits economic growth. Those who favor it argue that helps equalize unfairly unequal income and wealth distributions.

     See also | capital | asset | corporate stock | bond | second estate | third estate | investment | economic growth | income distribution | wealth distribution | corporate income tax | progressive tax |


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DUOPOLY

An oligopoly market structure containing exactly two firms. As an oligopoly, duopoly exhibits the oligopolistic characteristics and undertakes oligopolistic behavior, such as barriers to entry, interdependent actions, and nonprice competition. While duopoly, in its purest form of EXACTLY two firms in the industry, is seldom found in the real world, it does provide an excellent, easy to use illustration of oligopoly. In fact, most instructional analysis of oligopoly generally assumes a two-firm, duopoly market.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center hoping to buy either a box of multi-colored, plastic paper clips or several orange mixing bowls. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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A U.S. dime has 118 groves around its edge, one fewer than a U.S. quarter.
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