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July 16, 2018 

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DEMAND DETERMINANT: One of five basic basic ceteris paribus factors that affect demand, but which are assumed constant when a demand curve is constructed. Changes in any one causes a shift of the demand curve. The five demand determinants are: income, preferences, other prices, buyers' expectations, and number of buyers.

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CAPITAL GAINS TAX: A tax on the difference between the sales price of a "capital" asset and it's original purchase price. The capital assets subject to this tax include such things real estate, stocks, and bonds. This tax is frequently a source of controversy between the second and third estates. In that the second estate owns and sells a lot of this sort of capital, they don't like to pay taxes on capital gains. However, because the third estate doesn't have much capital it seems like a pretty good thing to tax. Those who oppose the capital gains tax argue that it takes away funds that would be used for further capital investment, which thus inhibits economic growth. Those who favor it argue that helps equalize unfairly unequal income and wealth distributions.

     See also | capital | asset | corporate stock | bond | second estate | third estate | investment | economic growth | income distribution | wealth distribution | corporate income tax | progressive tax |


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FREE-RIDER PROBLEM

A problem underlying the provision of public goods that occurs when a person consumes or benefits from a good without making payment. The free-rider problem is the primary reason that public goods are produced by governments. Because public goods are characterized by the inability to exclude nonpayers, once a public good is produced anyone, everyone, can consume without making payment, that is, get a "free ride." Voluntary payments like those occurring in markets will not provide enough revenue to pay production costs. The only way to finance public goods is to force free-riders, and everyone else, to pay through government taxes. The free-rider problem also applies to common-property goods.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market looking to buy either a microwave over that won't burn your popcorn or a T-shirt commemorating the first day of winter. Be on the lookout for a thesaurus filled with typos.
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Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"The only thing that will stop you from fulfilling your dreams is you. "

-- Tom Bradley, former Los Angeles mayor

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Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations
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