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June 15, 2024 

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MARGINAL FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION: The change in total factor cost resulting from a change in the quantity of factor input employed by a perfectly competitive firm. Marginal factor cost, abbreviated MFC, indicates how total factor cost changes with the employment of one more input. It is found by dividing the change in total factor cost by the change in the quantity of input used. Marginal factor cost is compared with marginal revenue product to identify the profit-maximizing quantity of input to hire.

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BUSINESS CYCLE: The recurring expansions and contractions of the national economy (usually measured by real gross domestic product). A complete cycle typically lasts from three to five years, but could last ten years or more. It is divided into four phases -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough. Unemployment inevitably rises during contractions and inflation tends to worsen during expansions. To avoid the inflation and unemployment problems of business cycles, the federal government frequently undertakes various fiscal and monetary policies.

     See also | real gross domestic product | economy | full-employment production | resources | aggregate expenditures | contraction | recession | expansion | peak | trough | recovery | unemployment | inflation | fiscal policy | monetary policy | business cycle phases | circular flow | business cycle measurement | economic indicators |


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SELLERS' EXPECTATIONS, SUPPLY DETERMINANT

The expectations that sellers have concerning the future price of a good, which is assumed constant when a supply curve is constructed. If sellers expect a higher price, then supply decreases. If sellers expect a lower price, then supply increases. Sellers' expectations are one of five supply determinants that shift the supply curve when they change. The other four are resource prices, production technology, other prices, and number of sellers.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store trying to buy either an AC adapter that works with your MPG player or rechargeable batteries. Be on the lookout for letters from the Internal Revenue Service.
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In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
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