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July 3, 2020 

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MARGINAL COST AND DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS: Decreasing then increasing marginal cost that gives rise to a U-shaped marginal cost curve reflects increasing then decreasing marginal returns. In particular the decreasing marginal returns is caused by the law of diminishing marginal returns. As such, the law of diminishing marginal returns affects not only the short-run production of a firm but also the cost of production in the short run.

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MONETARY POLICY: The Federal Reserve System's use of the money supply to stabilize the business cycle. As the nation's central bank, the Federal Reserve System determines the total amount of money circulating around the economy. In principle, the Fed can use three different "tools"--open market operations, the discount rate, and reserve requirements--to manipulate the money supply. In practice, however, the primary tool employed is open market operations. To counter a recession, the Fed would undertake expansionary policy, also termed easy money. To reduce inflation, contractionary policy is the order of the day, and goes by the name tight money.

     See also | Federal Reserve System | money | business cycle | stabilization policies | central bank | open market operations | discount rate | reserve requirements | Federal Open Market Committee | tight money | easy money | fiscal policy | interest rate | inflation | unemployment | expansionary monetary policy | contractionary monetary policy |


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AUTONOMOUS INVESTMENT

Business investment expenditures that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in investment. Autonomous investment is best thought of as investment that the business sector undertakes regardless of the state of the economy. It is measured by the intercept term of the investment line. The alternative to autonomous investment is induced investment, which does depend on income.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either a T-shirt commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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