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WILLINGNESS TO ACCEPT: The price or dollar amount that someone is willing to receive or accept to give up a good or service. Willingness to accept is the source of the supply price of a good. However, unlike supply price, in which sellers are on the spot of actually giving up a good to receive payment, willingness to accept does not require an actual exchange. This concept is important to benefit-cost analysis, welfare economics, and efficiency criteria, especially Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. A related concept is willingness to pay.

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RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: Rules by the Federal Reserve System governing the amount of bank reserves that banks must keep to back up their deposits. Legal reserve requirements came about because banks that practice fractional-reserve banking are sometimes inclined to make too many interest-paying loans and neglect to keep enough reserves on hand to pay their depositors. In principle, the Fed can alter reserve requirements to control the money supply. In practice, however, the Fed prefers to use open market operations or the discount rate.

     See also | Federal Reserve System | bank reserves | reserves | fractional-reserve banking | bank panic | money supply | open market operations | discount rate | monetary policy | Federal Open Market Committee | required reserves |


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UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

Illegal and unreported market transactions and productive activity that escape the watchful eyes of official record keepers. By most estimates, a substantial amount of productive activity takes place in the underground economy of the United States. Of course, these are only estimates because such activity, by definition, goes unreported. If activity in the underground economy is added to official activity in the "overground" economy, then gross domestic product could be boosted by as much as 25 percent to 50 percent, or more. Inclusion of employment in the underground economy is also likely reduce the official unemployment rate by a few percentage points.

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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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