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DEMAND-PULL INFLATION: Demand-pull inflation places responsibility for inflation squarely on the shoulders of increases in aggregate demand. This type of inflation results when the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) collectively try to purchase more output that the economy is capable of producing. In general, increasing aggregate demand means buyers want more production than the economy is able to provide. Then end result is that buyers bid up the price of existing production. The extra demand "pulls" the price level higher. You might want to compare demand-pull inflation with cost-push inflation.

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RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: Rules by the Federal Reserve System governing the amount of bank reserves that banks must keep to back up their deposits. Legal reserve requirements came about because banks that practice fractional-reserve banking are sometimes inclined to make too many interest-paying loans and neglect to keep enough reserves on hand to pay their depositors. In principle, the Fed can alter reserve requirements to control the money supply. In practice, however, the Fed prefers to use open market operations or the discount rate.

     See also | Federal Reserve System | bank reserves | reserves | fractional-reserve banking | bank panic | money supply | open market operations | discount rate | monetary policy | Federal Open Market Committee | required reserves |


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MANAGED FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATE

An exchange rate control policy in which an exchange rate that is generally allowed to adjust to equilibrium levels through to the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market, but with occasional intervention by government. Also termed managed float or dirty float, most nations of the world currently use a managed flexible exchange rate policy. With this alternative an exchange rate is free to rise and fall, but it is subject to government control if it moves too high or too low. With managed float, the government steps into the foreign exchange market and buys or sells whatever currency is necessary keep the exchange rate within desired limits. This is one of three basic exchange rate policies used by domestic governments. The other two policies are flexible exchange rate and fixed exchange rate.

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The Dow Jones family of stock market price indexes began with a simple average of 11 stock prices in 1884.
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