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September 21, 2018 

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FDI: The abbreviation for Foreign Direct Investment, this is the acquisition of controlling interest in foreign firms and businesses from one country in another country. FDI can also take the form of constructing factories, structures and equipment (or any form of physical capital) in foreign soil. FDI does not include foreign investment into the stock markets (portfolio investment). Most economists consider foreign direct investment more useful than portfolio investment since this last one is generally regarded as temporal and can leave the foreign country at the first sign of trouble. FDI on the other hand, is considered more durable and with larger economic (potential) benefits.

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BANK RESERVES: The "money" that banks use to conduct day-to-day business, including cashing checks, satisfying customers's withdrawals, and clearing checks between accounts at different banks. The "money" in question includes vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits. Specifically, vault cash is the paper money and coins that a bank keeps on the bank premises (both in the vault and in teller drawers), which is used to "cash" checks and otherwise provide the funds that customers withdraw. Federal Reserve deposits are accounts that banks keep with the Federal Reserve System, which are used to process, in a systematic, centralized fashion, the millions of checks written each day by customers of one bank that are deposited by customers of another bank. Using these deposits, the Fed acts as a central clearing house for checks, being able to simultaneously debit the account of one bank and credit the account of another. More on the importance of bank reserves can be found under fractional-reserve banking.

     See also | bank | money | vault cash | Federal Reserve deposits | Federal Reserve System | credit | fractional-reserve banking | required reserves | legal reserves | excess reserves |


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BANK RESERVES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 21, 2018].


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY DECREASE, LONG-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the long-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the long-run aggregate supply curve. A decrease in aggregate supply in the long-run aggregate market results in an increase in the price level and a decrease in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock is a smaller level of full-employment real production.

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