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October 29, 2020 

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CIRCULAR FLOW: The continuous movement of production, income, and resources between producers and consumers. This flow moves through product markets as the gross domestic product of our economy and is then the revenue received by the business sector in payment for this production. This stream of revenue then flows through resource markets as payments by businesses for the resources employed in production. The payments received by resource owners, however, is nothing more than the income of the household sector. The resource owners of the household sector use this income to purchase goods and services through the product markets, coming full circle to where we began.

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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

     See also | bank reserves | bank | Federal Reserve System | money supply | open market operations | easy money | tight money | fractional-reserve banking | money creation |


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EXCESS RESERVES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2020. [Accessed: October 29, 2020].


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BANK ASSETS

What a bank owns, including loans, reserves, investment securities, and physical assets. Bank assets are typically listed on the left-hand side of a bank's balance sheet. Bank liabilities, what a bank owes, are listed on the right-hand side of a bank's balance sheet. Net worth is the difference between assets and liabilities. The largest asset category of most bank is loans, which generates interest revenue. A critical asset category used to maintain the safety of deposits is reserves (vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits).

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