March 19, 2018 

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DPI: The abbreviation for disposable personal income, which is the total income that can be used by the household sector for either consumption or saving during a given period of time, usually one year. This is the income left over after income taxes and social security taxes are removed and government transfer payments, like welfare, social security benefits, or unemployment compensation are added. Because consumption and saving are important to our economy for short-run stability and long-run growth, pointy-headed economists like to keep a close eye on disposable personal income. Disposable personal income is reported quarterly (every three months) in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

     See also | bank reserves | bank | Federal Reserve System | money supply | open market operations | easy money | tight money | fractional-reserve banking | money creation |

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A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that generates the greatest difference between total revenue and total cost. This total approach is one of three methods that used to determine the profit-maximizing quantity of output. The other two methods involve the direct analysis of economic profit or a comparison of marginal revenue and marginal cost.

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