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July 1, 2022 

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INNOVATION: The introduction and dissemination of a new idea, product, or technological process throughout society and the economy. The innovation process should be contrasted with the act of invention, which is the creation of something new, but not the dissemination. Innovations are often though of as applying to physical products and technology. However, it applies to all aspects of society and the economy--physical, tangible, ideological, cultural, and social. Innovation often leads to the widespread use of new products (such as computers and DVD players), but it also creates new cultural, social, and economic institutions (such as government agencies, forms of business organizations, and social trends). Innovations are consider to be a primary source of economic growth.

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EXCESS RESERVES: The amount of bank reserves over and above those that the Federal Reserve System requires a bank to keep. Excess reserves are what banks use to make loans. If a bank has more excess reserves, then it can make more loans. This is a key part of the Fed's ability to control the money supply. Using open market operations, the Fed can add to, or subtract from, the excess reserves held by banks. If the Fed, for example, adds to excess reserves, then banks can make more loans. Banks make these loans by adding to their customers' checking account balances. This is of some importance, because checking account balances are an major part of the economy's money supply. In essence, controlling these excess reserves is the Fed's number one method of "printing" money without actually printing money.

     See also | bank reserves | bank | Federal Reserve System | money supply | open market operations | easy money | tight money | fractional-reserve banking | money creation |


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EXCESS RESERVES, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: July 1, 2022].


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PERFECT COMPETITION, LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT

A perfectly competitive industry undertakes a two-part adjustment to equilibrium in the long run. One is the adjustment of each perfectly competitive firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminate economic profit or economic loss. The end result of this long-run adjustment is a multi-faceted equilibrium condition that price is equal to marginal cost and average cost (both short run and long run).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex looking to buy either a genuine down-filled pillow or one of those "hang in there" kitty cat posters. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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