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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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BANK: A financial organization that accepts deposits, makes loans, and directly controls a significant portion of the nation's money supply. In the olden days of the economy (before 1980), a bank was easy to identify because it had the word "bank" in it's name -- such as "First National Bank", "Second National Bank", etc. However, after several laws were passed in the early 1980s to reform and deregulate the banking industry, the term bank has come to functionally include other financial institutions that previously went by the titles of "Savings and Loan," "Credit Union," and "Mutual Savings Banks." These institutions are operationally considered banks because they all perform "banking" functions -- especially accepting checking account deposits and making loans.

     See also | deposits | loans | money supply | Federal Reserve System | financial intermediary | saving | business sector | investment | fractional-reserve banking | bank panic | Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation | savings and loan association | credit union | mutual savings bank |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY

The total (or aggregate) real production of final goods and services available in the domestic economy at a range of price levels, during a given time period. Aggregate supply, usually abbreviated AS, is two different relations between price level and real production--long run and short run. With long-run aggregate supply, prices and wages are flexible and all markets are in equilibrium. With short-run aggregate supply some prices and wage are NOT flexible and some markets are NOT in equilibrium. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate demand.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages trying to buy either a video game player or an AC adapter that won't fry your computer. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
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