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RISK: The possibility of gain or loss. Risk the calculated probability of different events happening, is usually contrasted with uncertainty the possibility that any number of things could happen. For example, uncertainty is the possibility that you could win or lose $100 on the flip of a coin. You don't know which will happen, it could go either way. Risk, in contrast, is the 50 percent chance of winning $100 and the 50 percent chance of losing $100 on the flip of the coin. You know (or think you know) that your probability of winning or losing is 50 percent because the coin has a 50 percent chance of coming up either heads or tails.

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OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS: The Federal Reserve System's buying and selling of government securities in an effort to alter bank reserves and subsequently the nation's money supply. These actions, under the direction of the Federal Open Market Committee, are the Fed's number one, most effective, most often used tool of monetary policy. If, for example, the Fed wants to increase the money supply (termed easy money) it buy's government securities. If the Fed chooses to reduce the money supply (called tight money) it sells some government securities.

     See also | Federal Reserve System | Federal Open Market Committee | money | money supply | open market | bank reserves | excess reserves | monetary policy | tight money | easy money | discount rate | reserve requirements | government securities | banking | money creation | federal funds rate |


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FOUR-FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO

The proportion of total output in an industry produced by the four largest firms in an industry. This is one of two common concentration ratios. The other is the eight-firm concentration ratio. Another related measure is the Herfindahl index. The four-firm concentration ratio is commonly used to indicate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the extent of market control held by the four largest firms in the industry.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction looking to buy either a rechargeable flashlight or storage boxes for your computer software CDs. Be on the lookout for the last item on a shelf.
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Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
"Failure is the opportunity to begin again, more intelligently. "

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