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January 17, 2018 

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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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OPEN MARKET: A market, not unlike that stock market, that trades the U.S. Treasury securities that comprises the federal debt. U.S. Treasury securities are low risk and extremely secure financial instruments that are held by all sorts of investors, especially commercial banks. The Federal Reserve System is also a major holder of U.S. Treasury securities and participant in the open market. In fact, the Federal Reserve System used buying and selling of U.S. Treasury securities through the open market as a means of controlling the money, through what is appropriately termed open market operations.

     See also | open market operations | Federal Reserve System | Federal Open Market Committee | U.S. Treasury security | money | money supply | bank reserves | excess reserves | monetary policy | tight money | easy money | discount rate | reserve requirements | government securities | banking | money creation | federal funds rate |


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LEAKAGES LINE

A graphical representation of the relation between the level of aggregate production and one or more leakages. The three leakages (non-consumption uses of the income generated from aggregate production) are saving, taxes, and imports. The leakages line sequentially adds, or layers, each of these three uses of income depending on the number of sectors used in the analysis (two, three, or four). The slope of the leakages line depends on which if any of the uses of income are induced by aggregate production. The leakages line is combined with the injections line (containing investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports) in the Keynesian injections-leakages model.

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