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December 11, 2018 

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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OPEN MARKET: A market, not unlike that stock market, that trades the U.S. Treasury securities that comprises the federal debt. U.S. Treasury securities are low risk and extremely secure financial instruments that are held by all sorts of investors, especially commercial banks. The Federal Reserve System is also a major holder of U.S. Treasury securities and participant in the open market. In fact, the Federal Reserve System used buying and selling of U.S. Treasury securities through the open market as a means of controlling the money, through what is appropriately termed open market operations.

     See also | open market operations | Federal Reserve System | Federal Open Market Committee | U.S. Treasury security | money | money supply | bank reserves | excess reserves | monetary policy | tight money | easy money | discount rate | reserve requirements | government securities | banking | money creation | federal funds rate |


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FEDERAL ADVISORY COUNCIL

A support committee of the Federal Reserve System that provides advice and input the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. The Federal Advisory Council (FAC) is comprised of 12 members, one from each of the 12 Federal Reserve Districts. The council members, typically commercial bank presidents from the 12 districts, are appointed by their Federal Reserve District Banks. The FAC is one of three Federal Reserve Board advisory committees. The other two Consumer Advisory Council and Thrift Institutions Advisory Council.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall trying to buy either a tall storage cabinet with five shelves and a secure lock or a birthday greeting card for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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In his older years, Andrew Carnegie seldom carried money because he was offended by its sight and touch.
"There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there. "

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