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May 27, 2022 

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BUSINESS CYCLES: The recurring expansions and contractions of the national economy (usually measured by real gross domestic product). A complete cycle typically lasts from three to five years, but could last ten years or more. It is divided into four phases -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough. Unemployment inevitably rises during contractions and inflation tends to worsen during expansions. To avoid the inflation and unemployment problems of business cycles, the federal government frequently undertakes various fiscal and monetary policies.

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OPEN MARKET: A market, not unlike that stock market, that trades the U.S. Treasury securities that comprises the federal debt. U.S. Treasury securities are low risk and extremely secure financial instruments that are held by all sorts of investors, especially commercial banks. The Federal Reserve System is also a major holder of U.S. Treasury securities and participant in the open market. In fact, the Federal Reserve System used buying and selling of U.S. Treasury securities through the open market as a means of controlling the money, through what is appropriately termed open market operations.

     See also | open market operations | Federal Reserve System | Federal Open Market Committee | U.S. Treasury security | money | money supply | bank reserves | excess reserves | monetary policy | tight money | easy money | discount rate | reserve requirements | government securities | banking | money creation | federal funds rate |


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EFFICIENCY

Generating the most possible satisfaction from a given amount of resources. Efficiency means that this satisfaction of wants and needs cannot be increased by producing more of one good and less of another. This is one of the five economic goals and one of two microeconomic goals. The other goals are full employment, stability, economic growth, and equity.

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BROWN PRAGMATOX
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale hoping to buy either a birthday gift for your grandmother or a T-shirt commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for bottles of barbeque sauce that act TOO innocent.
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In his older years, Andrew Carnegie seldom carried money because he was offended by its sight and touch.
"He who has a „why¾ to live can bear with almost any „how.""

-- Friedrich Nietzsche, Philosopher

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