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September 19, 2018 

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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

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CREDIT: The promise of future payment in exchange for money, goods, services, or anything else of value. Car loans, mortgages, credit cards, corporate bonds, commercial paper, and government securities are all forms of credit. In fact, credit is an extremely wide-spread and critical part of our economy. About one-third of the stuff consumers buy, and nine-tenths of business expenditures is on credit. Most business capital, and consumer car and home purchases would be impossible without credit. Moreover, given the time lapse between paying for inputs and selling output, few businesses could produce much without credit.

     See also | financial markets | loan | money | exchange | corporate bond | commercial paper | government security | capital market | money market |


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CREDIT, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 19, 2018].


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ADVERSE SELECTION

An inefficient, bad, or adverse outcome of a market exchange that results because buyers and/or sellers make decisions based on asymmetric information. This commonly results in a market that exchanges a lesser quality good, what is termed the market for lemons. Two related problems resulting from asymmetric information are moral hazard and the principal-agent problem. Two methods of lessoning the problem of adverse selection are signalling and screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store wanting to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandmother or a coffee cup commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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A U.S. dime has 118 groves around its edge, one fewer than a U.S. quarter.
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