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January 23, 2018 

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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

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FINANCIAL MARKETS: A market that trades financial assets. Financial assets are the legal claims on the real assets in our economy and include such notable items as corporate stocks and bonds, government securities, and money. Without financial markets our economy would find it almost impossible to accumulate the funds needed for investment in big, expensive capital projects.

     See also | financial asset | legal claims | corporate stock | government security | stock market | money | commodity exchange | futures | option | foreign exchange market | capital | investment | circular flow | factor markets | product markets | interest rate | rate of return | yield |


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FINANCIAL MARKETS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 23, 2018].


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INCREASING MARGINAL RETURNS

In the short-run production by a firm, an increase in the variable input results in an increase in the marginal product of the variable input. Increasing marginal returns typically surface when the first few quantities of a variable input are added to a fixed input. This is one of two alternatives for marginal returns. The other is decreasing marginal returns. A related phenomenon for long-run production is increasing returns to scale.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store trying to buy either a toaster oven that has convection cooking or a birthday gift for your mother. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
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