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November 30, 2020 

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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YIELD: The rate of return on a financial asset. In some simple cases, the yield on a financial asset, like commercial paper, corporate bond, or government security, is the asset's interest rate. However, as a more general rule, the yield includes both the interest earned from an asset plus any changes in the asset's price. Suppose, for example, that a $100,000 bond has a 10 percent interest rate, such that the holder receives $10,000 interest per year. If the price of the bond increases over the course of the year from $100,000 to $105,000, then the bond's yield is greater than 10 percent. It includes the $10,000 interest plus the $5,000 bump in the price, giving a yield of 15 percent. Because bonds and similar financial assets often have fixed interest payments, their prices and subsequently yields move up and down as economic conditions change.

     See also | rate of return | interest rate | asset | commercial paper | corporate bond | government security | price | financial markets |


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GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACIES

Relatively complex government organizations that operate according to rules and procedures to implement the programs and policies of political leaders. A bureaucracy is a complex organization that usually contains hundreds or even thousands of employees, each with different duties and responsibilities. Bureaucracies exist in all types of organizations -- private, public, government, business, charities, corporations, even households. The study of public choice indicates that government bureaucracies are one source of government inefficiency. Other sources are politicians, voters, and special interest groups.

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A scripophilist is one who collects rare stock and bond certificates, usually from extinct companies.
"Sometimes our light goes out, but is blown into flame by another human being. Each of us owes deepest thanks to those who have rekindled this light. "

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