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November 19, 2019 

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SCARCE RESOURCE: A resource with an available quantity less than its desired use. Scarce resources are also called factors of production. Scarce goods are also termed economic goods. Scarce resources are used to produce scarce goods. Like the more general society-wide condition of scarcity, a given resource is scarce because it has a limited availability in combination with a greater (potentially unlimited) productive use. It's both of these that make it scarce. In other words, even though an item is quite limited it will not be a scarce resource if it has few if any uses (think pocket lint and free good).

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PRICE: An asset or item voluntarily exchanged in a market transaction for another asset or item. This item or asset is usually, but not necessarily, money. A barter transaction occurs if money is NOT one of the assets or items exchanged. In a standard market diagram, price is displayed on the vertical axis. Price takes on several specific roles in the functioning of a market. On the demand side, the price reflects the willingness and ability of the buyers to purchase a product which is based on the satisfaction received (the demand price). On the supply side, the price reflects the opportunity cost of production (the supply price). Also the variable in the marketing mix where the organization establishes product positioning objectives. These could be low end to capture more market share or high end to differentiate based on perceived product quality and scarcity. Pricing is based on market research to establish what customer wants and needs are in exchange for valued compensation, typically money or bartering.

     See also | market | exchange | value | asset | money | barter | demand | supply | opportunity cost | demand price | supply price | equilibrium price | quantity demanded | quantity supplied | law of demand | law of supply | change in quantity demanded | change in quantity supplied | shortage | surplus | market adjustment | price competition | pricing strategies | promotional pricing | pricing objectives | product | promotion | distribution | packaging | marketing mix |


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PRICE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: November 19, 2019].


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CONSTRAINED UTILITY MAXIMIZATION

The process of obtaining the highest possible level of utility from the consumption of goods or services, under given restrictions, when the highest overall level of utility cannot be reached. The notion of constrained utility maximization is a modification of the more general utility maximization assumption. It is based on the recognition that consumers might be restricted from achieving the absolute maximum level of utility. The primary restrictions tend to be the amount of income available relative to price paid. Constrained utility maximization generally does reach the peak of the total utility curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway seeking to buy either a video camera with stop action features or one of those memory foam pillows. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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A communal society, a prime component of Karl Marx's communist philosophy, was advocated by the Greek philosophy Plato.
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