March 17, 2018 

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OLIGOPOLY: A market structure dominated by a small number of large firms, selling either identical or differentiated products, and significant barriers to entry into the industry. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are perfect competition, monopoly, and monopolistic competition.

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PRICE: An asset or item voluntarily exchanged in a market transaction for another asset or item. This item or asset is usually, but not necessarily, money. A barter transaction occurs if money is NOT one of the assets or items exchanged. In a standard market diagram, price is displayed on the vertical axis. Price takes on several specific roles in the functioning of a market. On the demand side, the price reflects the willingness and ability of the buyers to purchase a product which is based on the satisfaction received (the demand price). On the supply side, the price reflects the opportunity cost of production (the supply price). Also the variable in the marketing mix where the organization establishes product positioning objectives. These could be low end to capture more market share or high end to differentiate based on perceived product quality and scarcity. Pricing is based on market research to establish what customer wants and needs are in exchange for valued compensation, typically money or bartering.

     See also | market | exchange | value | asset | money | barter | demand | supply | opportunity cost | demand price | supply price | equilibrium price | quantity demanded | quantity supplied | law of demand | law of supply | change in quantity demanded | change in quantity supplied | shortage | surplus | market adjustment | price competition | pricing strategies | promotional pricing | pricing objectives | product | promotion | distribution | packaging | marketing mix |

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The reserves (vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits) that banks are required by government to keep to back up deposits. The primary use of required reserves is to process daily checkable deposit transactions. The government regulator in charge of setting reserve requires is the Federal Reserve System. Required reserves are usually in the range of 3 to 10 percent for checkable deposits and substantially less (0 percent) for savings deposits. Any legal reserves held by banks over those required to back deposits, termed excess reserves or free reserves, are available for interest-generating loans.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store hoping to buy either a New York Yankees baseball cap or several magazines on home repairs. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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Before 1933, the U.S. dime was legal as payment only in transactions of $10 or less.
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