
SLOPE, AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE: The aggregate demand curve has a negative slope, reflecting the inverse relation between the price level and aggregate expenditures on real production. A higher price level is related to fewer aggregate expenditures and a lower price level is related to greater aggregate expenditures. The three reasons underlying the negative slope of the AD curve and the inverse relation between the price level and aggregate expenditures on real production are: realbalance effect; interestrate effect; and netexport effect.
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AVERAGE FACTOR COST AND MARGINAL FACTOR COST A mathematical connection between average factor cost and marginal factor cost stating that the change in the average factor cost depends on a comparison between average factor cost and marginal factor cost. For perfect competition, with no market control, marginal factor cost is equal to average factor cost, and average factor cost does not change. For monopsony and other firms with market control, marginal factor cost is greater than average factor cost, and average factor cost rises.
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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.


"Many people think that if they were only in some other place, or had some other job, they would be happy. Well, that is doubtful. So get as much happiness out of what you are doing as you can and don't put off being happy until some future date. "  Dale Carnegie


ICSID International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes


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