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September 15, 2019 

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PIGOUVIAN TAX: A tax on an external cost, such as pollution, designed to use market forces to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. A. C. Pigou, one of the first economists to study the market failure of externalities, is credited with developing this tax system for internalizing costs external to the market. An external cost caused by pollution, for example, can be internalized if polluters pay a tax equal to the value of the external cost.

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SUPPLY: The willingness and ability to sell a range of quantities of a good at a range of prices, during a given time period. Supply is one half of the market exchange process; the other is demand. This supply side of the market is directly connected to the limited resources dimension of the scarcity problem. Folks who have ownership and control over resources (labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship) use them to produce the goods and services that satisfy other's wants and needs. Ownership and control of resources is the ultimate source of supply.

     See also | price | supply price | quantity supplied | market | exchange | demand | unlimited wants and needs | scarcity | satisfaction | income | supply curve | supply shock | supply determinants | supply space |


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SUPPLY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: September 15, 2019].


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MARGINAL UTILITY

The additional utility obtained from the consumption or use of an additional unit of a good. It is specified as the change in total utility divided by the change in quantity. Marginal utility indicates what each additional unit of a good is worth to a consumer and provides a theoretical basis for understanding market demand and the law of demand. Marginal utility generally declines with increased consumption of a good, a reflection of the law of diminishing marginal utility.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials trying to buy either a video game player or an AC adapter that won't fry your computer. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted. "

-- Aldous Huxley, writer

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