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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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SUPPLY SHOCK: A disruption of market equilibrium (that is, a market adjustment) caused by a change in a supply determinant and a shift of the supply curve. A supply shock can take one of two forms--an supply increase or a supply decrease. An increase in supply is illustrated by a rightward shift of the supply curve and results in an increase in equilibrium quantity and a decrease in equilibrium price. A decrease in supply is illustrated by a leftward shift of the supply curve and results in a decrease in equilibrium quantity and an increase in equilibrium price.

     See also | supply | supply curve | supply price | supply determinants | equilibrium quantity | equilibrium price | equilibrium | resource prices | other prices | substitute-in-production | complement-in-production | sellers' expectations | number of sellers | supply decrease | demand increase | demand decrease |


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AVERAGE FACTOR COST CURVE, PERFECT COMPETITION

A curve that graphically represents the relation between average factor cost incurred by a perfectly competitive firm for employing an input and the quantity of input used. Because average factor cost is essentially the price of the input, the average factor cost curve is also the supply curve for the input. The average factor cost curve for a perfectly competitive firm with no market control is horizontal. The average revenue curve for a firm with market control is positively sloped.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel looking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your aunt or a wall poster commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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In 1914, Ford paid workers who were age 22 or older $5 per day -- double the average wage offered by other car factories.
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