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ALLOCATION EFFECT: The goal of imposing taxes to change the allocation of resources, that is, to discourage the production, consumption, or exchange or one type of good usually in favor of another. This is one of two reasons that governments impose taxes. The other reason is the revenue effect. Because people would rather not pay taxes, taxes create disincentives to produce, consume, and exchange. If society deems that less of a particular good, such as alcohol, pollution, or cigarettes are "bad," then a tax can reduce its production and consumption, and thus change the allocation of resources.

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SHORTAGE: A condition in the market in which the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity supplied at the existing price. A shortage occasionally goes by the terms excess demand and sellers' market. A shortage causes an increase in the equilibrium price.

     See also | market | quantity demanded | quantity supplied | price | excess demand | sellers' market | surplus | disequilibrium | market disequilibrium |


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PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND

The relative response of a change in quantity demanded to a change in price. More specifically the price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in quantity demanded due to a percentage change in price. This notion of elasticity captures the demand side of the market. A comparable elasticity on the supply side is the price elasticity of supply. Other notable demand elasticities are income elasticity of demand and cross elasticity of demand.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale seeking to buy either a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted or a half-dozen helium filled balloons. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"No man, for any considerable time, can wear one face to himself and another to the multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be true."

-- Nathanial Hawthorne, Author

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