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INFLATIONARY GAP: The difference between the equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production the occurs when short-run equilibrium real production is more than full-employment real production. An inflationary gap, also termed an expansionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle expansion, especially the latter stages of an expansion. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when short-run production differs from full employment. The other is a recessionary gap.

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FISCAL POLICY: Use of the federal government's powers of spending and taxation to stabilize the business cycle. If the economy is mired in a recession, then the appropriate fiscal policy is to increase spending or reduce taxes--termed expansionary policy. During periods of high inflation, the opposite actions are needed--contractionary policy. The consequences of fiscal policy are typically observed in terms of the federal deficit.

     See also | government sector | stabilization policies | government purchases | taxes | transfer payments | federal deficit | full-employment budget | business cycle | recession | contraction | expansion | unemployment | inflation | crowding out | expansionary fiscal policy | contractionary fiscal policy | automatic stabilizer | monetary policy | recessionary gap | inflationary gap |


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THREE-SECTOR INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A variation of the Keynesian injections-leakages model that includes the three domestic sectors--the household sector, the business sector, and the government sector. This model provides an alternative to the three-sector aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis of government stabilization policies, especially how fiscal policy changes in government purchases and taxes can be used to close recessionary gaps and inflationary gaps. Equilibrium is identified as the intersection between the S + T line and the I + G line. Two related variations are the two-sector injections-leakages model and the four-sector injections-leakages model.

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