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December 9, 2022 

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MACROECONOMY: The aggregate, or national economy that is the prime focus of the study of macroeconomics.

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AUTOMATIC STABILIZER: A feature of the federal government's budget that tends to reduce the ups and downs of the business cycle without the need for any special legislative action, that is stabilization policies. The two key automatic stabilizers are income taxes and transfer payments. When our economy drops into a recession, unemployment rises, aggregate output declines, and people have less income. But with less income, they pay fewer income taxes, and thus there's less of a drain on consumption than their might have been. Likewise, many who are unemployed get transfer payments in the form of unemployment compensation, welfare, or Social Security. This lets them consume more than they would have otherwise. During an expansion, both of these go in the other direction. As a result, a recession sees more spending and fewer taxes, while an expansion has less spending and more taxes, all occurring quite automatically.

     See also | business cycle | stabilization policies | fiscal policy | transfer payment | unemployment compensation | welfare | income tax | business cycle | contraction | expansion | consumption | income | aggregate output |


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE

The proportion of each additional dollar of household income that is used for saving. The marginal propensity to save (abbreviated MPS) is another term for the slope of the saving line and is calculated as the change in saving divided by the change in income. The MPS plays a central role in Keynesian economics. It quantifies the saving-income relation, which is the flip side of the consumption-income relation, and thus it reflects the fundamental psychological law. It is also a critical to the multiplier process. A related saving measure is the average propensity to save.

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