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January 18, 2018 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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AUTOMATIC STABILIZER: A feature of the federal government's budget that tends to reduce the ups and downs of the business cycle without the need for any special legislative action, that is stabilization policies. The two key automatic stabilizers are income taxes and transfer payments. When our economy drops into a recession, unemployment rises, aggregate output declines, and people have less income. But with less income, they pay fewer income taxes, and thus there's less of a drain on consumption than their might have been. Likewise, many who are unemployed get transfer payments in the form of unemployment compensation, welfare, or Social Security. This lets them consume more than they would have otherwise. During an expansion, both of these go in the other direction. As a result, a recession sees more spending and fewer taxes, while an expansion has less spending and more taxes, all occurring quite automatically.

     See also | business cycle | stabilization policies | fiscal policy | transfer payment | unemployment compensation | welfare | income tax | business cycle | contraction | expansion | consumption | income | aggregate output |


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AUTOMATIC STABILIZER, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 18, 2018].


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OLIGOPOLY, CHARACTERISTICS

The three most important characteristics of oligopoly are: (1) an industry dominated by a small number of large firms, (2) firms sell either identical or differentiated products, and (3) the industry has significant barriers to entry.

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