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A PRIORI: A presumption made before an analysis is undertaken, often based on experiences, beliefs, or deductions from seemingly self-evident propositions about how the world works. This is a Latin for assumption or axiom. A similar sounding, but opposite term is a posteriori, which is derived from observation or facts. For example, in the study of economics of crime you might assume, a priori, that people are basically "good", because that just seems to be part of human nature, and conclude, a posteriori, that people are more likely to commit crimes when the threat of capture and conviction is lower.

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EXPANSION: A phase of the business cycle characterized by a general period of rising economic activity. An expansion is one of two basic business cycle phases. The other is contraction. The transition from expansion to contraction is termed a peak and the transition from contraction to expansion is termed a trough. Expansions last an average of about 3-4 years, but this by no means not guaranteed. An expansion in the early 1980s lasted a mere 12 months. The next expansion then lasted over 8 years. Much of the 1960s was dedicated to a 106-month expansion, almost 9 years.

     See also | business cycle | prosperity | contraction | peak | trough | real gross domestic product | full employment | unemployment rate | inflation | investment | consumption | investment business cycle | political business cycle |


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EXPANSION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: August 17, 2019].


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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE

A taxation principle stating that taxes should be based on the ability to pay taxes. The ability-to-pay principle works from the proposition that those who have the greatest income should pay the most taxes. The ability-to-pay principle is the only reasonable way to finance the provision of public goods such as national defense, public health, and environmental quality. This is one of two taxation principles. The other is the benefit principle, which states taxes should be based on the benefits received.

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