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December 11, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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FULL EMPLOYMENT: In principle, this is when all of our economy's resources are being used to produce output. This is one of the five economic goals, specifically one of the three macro goals (the other two are economic growth and stability). In practice, our economy is considered to be at full employment when the unemployment rate is around 5 to 5 1/2 percent and the capacity utilization rate is about 85 percent. This unemployment rate includes structural and frictional unemployment.

     See also | economic goals | macro goals | stability | economic growth | frictional unemployment | structural unemployment | unemployment rate | capacity utilization rate | full-employment budget | full-employment real production |


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LONG RUN, MICROECONOMICS

In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which all inputs under the control of a firm used in the production process are variable. In the long run, labor and capital are variable inputs. The long-run analysis of production reveals the key role played by returns to scale. This is one of four production time periods used in the study of microeconomics. The other three are short run, very long run, and very short run (or market period). The long run is also a time period designation used in the macroeconomic analysis of economic growth and full employment.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store trying to buy either a set of serrated steak knives, with durable plastic handles or a pair of blue silicon oven mitts. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
"There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there. "

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