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June 16, 2024 

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PERFECT COMPETITION: An ideal market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, identical products sold by all firms, freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and perfect knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that's not observed in the real world. While unrealistic, it does provide an excellent benchmark that can be used to analyze real world market structures. In particular, perfect competition efficiently allocates resources.

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POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE: The notion that a business cycle is caused by elected government leaders who manipulate the economy to achieve personal political goals -- that is, to remain in office. The leaders stimulate the economy leading up to an election, creating a business-cycle expansion that ensures (they hope) their re-election, then induce a business-cycle contraction after the election to correct problems created by pre-election stimulation.

     See also | business cycle | investment | expansion | contraction | peak | trough | shortage | surplus | unemployment | inflation | fiscal policy | monetary policy | stabilization policies | investment business cycle | circular flow | balanced budget | money supply rule |


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TOTAL REVENUE CURVE, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

A curve that graphically represents the relation between the total revenue received by a monopolistically competitive firm for selling its output and the quantity of output sold. It is combined with the total cost curve to determine economic profit and the profit maximizing level of production. The slope of the total revenue curve is marginal revenue.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs hoping to buy either a rechargeable battery for your computer or shoe laces for your snow boots. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
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Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
"The secret of getting ahead is getting started. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex, overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks, and then starting on the first one. "

-- Mark Twain, writer

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