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November 30, 2022 

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COLLUSION AND EFFICIENCY: Colluding oligopolistic firms generally produce less output and charge a higher price than would be the case for a perfectly competitive industry. In essence, colluding oligopolistic firms function just as if a market were monopolized. The price charged by the colluding firms is higher than the marginal cost of production. The equality between price and marginal cost is THE key indication that resources are allocated efficiently and that society's resources are being used to generate the highest possible level of satisfaction. Because the colluding firms control the market like a monopoly, the market demand curve is THE demand curve for the colluding firms's. With a negatively-sloped demand curve, price is greater than marginal revenue. And because a profit-maximizing firm equates marginal revenue with marginal cost, the price charged by the colluding firms when the maximize industry profit is greater than marginal cost.

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CONTRACTION: A phase of the business cycle characterized by a general period of declining economic activity. A contraction is one of two basic business cycle phases. The other is expansion. The transition from contraction to expansion is termed a trough and the transition from expansion to contraction is termed a peak. The popular term for contraction, one that frequent shows up in the media, is recession. Should you check out the entry recession, you will see information that is essentially identical to that presented here, because they are two terms for the same phenomenon.

     See also | business cycle | recession | expansion | peak | trough | recovery | real gross domestic product | unemployment rate | unemployment | full employment | inflation | aggregate expenditures | National Income and Product Accounts | Great Depression |


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RECESSIONARY GAP

The difference between the equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production that occurs when short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production. A recessionary gap, also termed a contractionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle contraction. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when short-run equilibrium generates production that differs from full employment. The other is an inflationary gap.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads wanting to buy either a case for your designer sunglasses or arch supports for your shoes. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"Consult not your fears, but your hopes and your dreams. Think not about your frustrations, but about your unfulfilled potential. Concern yourself not with what you tried and failed in, but with what it is still possible for you to do. "

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