March 18, 2018 

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OLIGOPOLY, CONCENTRATION: Oligopoly is a market structure that contains a small number of relatively large firms, meaning oligopoly markets tend to be concentrated. A small number of large firms account for a majority of total output. Concentration unto itself is not necessarily bad, but it often leads to inefficient behavior, such as collusion and nonprice competition. Concentration is measured in three ways--market share, concentration ratio, Herfindahl index.

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RECESSIONARY GAP: The difference between the equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production the occurs when short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production. A recessionary gap, also termed a contractionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle contraction. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when short-run production differs from full employment. The other is an inflationary gap.

     See also | short-run aggregate market | short-run equilibrium | macroeconomics | full-employment real production | price level | recession | contraction | business cycle | unemployment | output gaps | inflationary gap |

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The state of equilibrium that exists in the short-run aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to full-employment real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. The opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and short-run aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. At the existing price level, the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) purchase all of the real production that they seek and producers sell all of the real production that they have.

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