March 23, 2018 

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SAVING-INVESTMENT EQUALITY: A classical economic proposition stating that flexible prices ensure an equality between saving and investment. This equality is essential to obtain the classical economic conclusion that unrestricted markets achieve and maintain full employment. This is one of the three assumptions underlying classical economics. The other two assumptions are flexible prices and Say's law.

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OUTPUT GAPS: Recessionary and inflationary gaps created by differences between equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production. A recessionary gap occurs if short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production. An inflationary gap results if short-run real equilibrium production is greater than full-employment real production.

     See also | recessionary gap | inflationary gap | full employment | real production | short-run aggregate market | inflation | unemployment | business cycle | contraction | expansion |

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Government purchases that depend on income or production (especially national income and gross domestic product). That is, changes in income induce changes in government purchases. Induced government purchases reflect the observation that the government sector (especially state and local governments) is inclined to use tax revenue, which increases with income, for purchases. They are measured by the marginal propensity for government purchases (MPG) and are reflected by the positive slope of government purchases line. The alternative to induced government purchases is autonomous government purchases, which do not depend on income.

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