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January 20, 2022 

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AGGREGATE MARKET: An economic model relating the price level and real production that is used to analyze business cycles, gross domestic product, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and related macroeconomic phenomena. The aggregate market, inspired by the standard market model, captures the interaction between aggregate demand (the buyers) and short-run and long-run aggregate supply (the sellers).

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CROWDING OUT: A decline in investment caused by expansionary fiscal policy. When government counteracts a recession with an increase in spending or a reduction in taxes (both resulting in an increase in the federal deficit) interest rates tend to increase. Higher interest rates then inhibit business investment in capital goods. Some pointy-headed economists argue that investment crowding out completely offsets any intended expansionary policy, but the jury's still out on this one. To the extend that crowding out occurs, economic growth is reduced if (and this is an important if) government has not seen fit to offset the loss in business investment with public investment in infrastructure, education, or other growth promoting expenditures.

     See also | investment | government purchases | taxes | fiscal policy | expansionary fiscal policy | recession | federal deficit | economic growth | infrastructure | education |


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OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS

The buying and selling of U.S. Treasury securities by the Federal Reserve System (the Fed) as a means of a controlling the money supply. An increase in the money supply is achieved when the Fed buys securities. A decrease in the money supply is achieved when the Fed sells securities. The Federal Open Market Committee is the specific component of the Federal Reserve System that is charged with open market operations. Open market operations are the most important of the three monetary policy tools that the Fed can use, in principle, to control the money supply. The other two are the discount rate and reserve requirements.

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